Applied sciences

Chemical and Process Engineering

Content

Chemical and Process Engineering | 2019 | vol. 40 | No 3 |

Abstract

A method of suppressing chaotic oscillations in a tubular reactor with mass recycle is discussed. The method involves intervention in the temperature of the input flow by the recirculation flow and the temperature set from the exterior. The most advantageous solution was proved to be heat coupling elimination and maintenance of the reactor input temperature on the set level. Moreover, the reactor modelwas identified on the basis of a chaotic solution, as it provides the biggest entropy of information.

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Abstract

Chemical heat pumps (CHP) use reversible exothermal and endothermal chemical reactions to increase the temperature of working fluids. In comparison to the “classical” vapour compression chemical heat pumps, CHP enables us to achieve significantly higher temperatures of a heated medium which is crucial for the potential application, e.g. for production of superheated steam. Despite the advantages presented, currently, there are no installations using CHP for lowgrade waste heat recovery available on the market. The scaling up of industrial processes is still one of the greatest challenges of process engineering. The aim of the theoretical and experimental concept study presented here was to evaluate a method of reclaiming energy from low temperature waste streams and converting it into a saturated steam of temperature from 120 to 150 ◦C, which can be useful in industry. A chemical heat pump concept, based on the dilution and concentration of phosphoric acid, was used to test the method in the laboratory scale. The heat of dilution and energy needed for water evaporation from the acid solutionwere experimentally measured. The cycle of successive processes of dilution and concentration has been experimentally confirmed. A theoretical model of the chemical heat pump was tested and coefficient of performance measured.

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Abstract

In this study, batch fermentation of glucose to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ATCC 7754) was carried out using 2.5 dm3 BioFlo®115 bioreactor. The main objective of this study was to investigate the kinetics of ethanol fermentation by means of the non-structured model. The fermentation process was carried out for 72 h. Samples were collected every 4 h and then yeast growth concentration of ethanol and glucose were measured. The mathematical model was composed of three equations, which represented the changes of biomass, substrate and ethanol concentrations. The mathematical model of bioprocess was solved by means of Matlab/SimulinkTM environment. The obtained results from the proposed model showed good agreement with the experimental data, thus it was concluded that this model can be used for the mathematical modeling of ethanol production.

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Abstract

The effect of rotating magnetic field on the heat transfer process in a magnetically assisted bioreactor was studied experimentally. Experimental investigations are provided for the explanation of the influence of the rotating magnetic field on natural convection. The heat transfer coefficients and the Nusselt numbers were determined as a function of the product of Grashof and Prandtl dimensionless numbers. Moreover, the comparison of the thermal performance between the tested set-up and a vertical cylinder was carried out. The relative enhancement of heat transfer was characterized by the rate of the relative heat transfer intensification. The study showed that along with the intensity of the magnetic field the heat transfer increased.

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Abstract

Linden honey ultrafiltration (15 kDa MWCO ceramic membrane) was performed as honey solution pre-treatment before spray drying. Feed and retentate solutions with the addition of maltodextrin as a carrier were spray dried. Drying yield and physical properties of powders were studied (after drying and after 12 weeks of storage). During ultrafiltration it was possible to remove some amount of sugars responsible for honey low glass transition temperature, while keeping protein compounds. Yet, it did not have a significant impact on the drying performance and improvement of powder physical properties immediately after drying and after storage. However, the possibility to remove sugars from honey solution by ultrafiltration can be an encouragement for further research.

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Abstract

Carbon paste electrode (CPE) was modified with F-300 commercial activated carbon or Norit SX- 2 powdered activated carbon. CPEs were prepared for detection of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2,6-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,6-D) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,6-T). The electrochemical behavior of these materials was investigated employing cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The modifier was found to enhance the electroactive surface area and the peak current in comparison to the bare (unmodified) carbon paste electrode. The intensity of the signal increased with the increase in adsorption ability of the modifiers. Compared to the unmodified electrode, all the new paste electrodes showed a much greater sensitivity for detection of chlorinated phenoxyacetic acids in water samples.

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Abstract

Evaluation of moisture absorption in foodstuffs such as black chickpea is an important stage for skinning and cropping practices. Water uptake process of black chickpea was discussed through normal soaking in four temperature levels of 20, 35, 50 and 65 °C for 18 hours, and then the hydration kinetics was predicted by Peleg’s model and finite difference strategy. Model results showed that with increasing soaking temperature from 20 to 65 °C, Peleg’s rate and Peleg’s capacity constant reduced from 13.368×10-2 to 5.664×10-2 and 9.231×10-3 to 9.138×10-3, respectively. Based on key results, a rise in the medium temperature caused an increase in the diffusion coefficient from 5.24×10-10 m2/s to 4.36×10-9 m2/s, as well. Modelling of moisture absorption of black chickpea was also performed employing finite difference strategy. Comparing the experimental results with those obtained from the analytical solution of the theoretical models revealed a good agreement between predicted and experimental data. Peleg’s model and finite difference technique revealed their predictive function the best at the temperature of 65 °C.

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Editorial office

Editor-in-Chief
Andrzej K. Biń, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Editorial Board
Andrzej Burghardt (Chairman), Polish Academy of Sciences, Gliwice, Poland
Jerzy Bałdyga, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej Górak, T.U. Dortmund, Germany
Leon Gradoń, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej Jarzębski, Silesian University of Technology, Poland
Zdzisław Jaworski, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland
Władysław Kamiński, Technical University of Łódź, Poland
Stefan Kowalski, Poznań University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej Krasławski, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland
Stanisław Ledakowicz, Technical University of Łódź, Poland
Eugeniusz Molga, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Alvin W. Nienow, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
Andrzej Noworyta, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
Ryszard Pohorecki, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej Stankiewicz, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
Czesław Strumiłło, Technical University of Łódź, Poland
Stanisław Sieniutycz, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Krzysztof Warmuziński, Polish Academy of Sciences, Gliwice, Poland
Laurence R. Weatherley, University of Kansas, Lawrence, United States
Günter Wozny, T.U. Berlin, Germany
Ireneusz Zbiciński, Technical University of Łódź, Poland

Technical Editor
Barbara Zakrzewska, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland
Language Editor
Marek Stelmaszczyk, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland

 

Contact

Editorial Office
ul. Waryńskiego 1
00-645 Warszawa
Poland
email: andrzej.bin@outlook.com

 

Instructions for authors

All manuscripts submitted for publication in Chemical and Process Engineering must comprise a description of original research that has neither been published nor submitted for publication elsewhere.

The content, aim and scope of the proposals should comply with the main subject of the journal, i.e. they should deal with mathematical modelling and/or experimental investigations on momentum, heat and mass transfer, unit processes and operations, integrated processes, biochemical engineering, statics and kinetics of chemical reactions. The experiments and modelling may cover different scales and processes ranging from the molecular phenomena up to production systems. The journal language is grammatically correct British English.

Chemical and Process Engineering publishes: i) full text research articles, ii) invited reviews, iii) letters to the editor and iv) short communications, aiming at important new results and/or applications. Each of the publication form is peer-reviewed by at least two independent referees.  

Submission of materials for publication

The manuscripts are submitted for publication via Internet site www.chpe.pl and its subfolder Authors Pathway or e-mail address andrzej.bin@outlook.com. When writing the manuscript, authors should preferably use the template for articles, which is available on the www.chpe.pl page in section Instructions for Authors.   

Proposals of a paper should be uploaded using the Internet site of the journal and should contain:

  • a manuscript file in Word format (*.doc, *.docx),
  • the manuscript mirror in PDF format,
  • all graphical figuresin separate graphics files.

In the following paragraphthe general guidelines for the manuscript preparation are presented.

Manuscript outline

        1. Header details
          1. Title of paper
          2. Names (first name and further initials) and surnames of authors
          3. Institution(s) (affiliation)
          4. Address(es) of authors
          5. Information about the corresponding author; academic title, name and surname, email address, address for correspondence
        2. Abstract – should contain a short summary of the proposed paper. In the maximum of 200 words the authors should present the main assumptions, results and conclusions drawn from the presented study.
        3. Keywords– Up to 5 characteristic keyword items should be provided.
        4. Text
          1. Introduction. In this part, description of motivation for the study and formulation of the scientific problem should be included and supported by a concise review of recent literature.
          2. Main text. It should contain all important elements of the scientific investigations, such as presentation of experimental rigs, mathematical models, results and their discussion. This part may be divided into subchapters.
          3. Conclusions. The major conclusions can be put forward in concise style in a separate chapter. Presentation of conclusions from the reported research work accompanied by a short commentary is also acceptable.
          4. Figures: drawings, diagrams and photographs can be in colour and should be located in appropriate places in the manuscript text according to the template provided on the www.chpe.pl page. Their graphical form should be of vector or raster type with the minimum resolution of 900 dpi. In addition, separate files containing each of the drawings, graphs and photos should be uploaded onto the journal Web site in one of the following formats: bmp, gif, tiff, jpg, eps. Due to rigid editorial reasons, graphical elements created within MS Word and Excel are not acceptable. The final length of figures should be intended typically for 8 cm (single column) or 16 cm in special cases of rich-detail figures. The basic font size of letters in figures should be at least 10 pts after adjusting graphs to the final length.  

          Figures: drawings, diagrams and photographs should be in gray scale. In case of coloured graphs or photo an additional payment of 300 PLN (72 €) per 1 page containing coloured figures on both sides, or 150 PLN (36 €) per page containing coloured figures on one side will be required.

          Tables should be made according to the format shown in the template.

        5. All figures and tables should be numbered and provided with appropriate title and legend, if necessary. They have to be properly referenced to and commented in the text of the manuscript.

        6. List of symbols should be accompanied by their units
        7. Acknowledgements may be included before the list of literature references
        8. Literature citations

 

The method of quoting literature source in the manuscript depends on the number of its authors:

  • single author – their surname and year of publication should be given, e.g. Marquardt (1996) or (Marquardt, 1996),
  • two authors – the two surnames separated by the conjunction “and” with the publication year should be given, e.g. Charpentier and McKenna (2004) or (Charpentier and McKenna, 2004),
  • three and more authors – the surname of the first author followed by the abbreviation “et al.” and year of publication should be given, e.g. Bird et al. (1960) or (Bird et al., 1960).

In the case of citing more sources in one bracket, they should be listed in alphabetical order using semicolon for separation, e.g. (Bird et al., 1960; Charpentier and McKenna, 2004; Marquardt, 1996). Should more citations of the same author(s) and year appear in the manuscript then letters “a, b, c, ...” should be successively applied after the publication year.

Bibliographic data of the quoted literature should be arranged at the end of the manuscript text in alphabetic order of surnames of the first author. It is obligatory to indicate the DOI number of those literature items, which have the numbers already assigned. Journal titles should be specified by typingtheir right abbreviationsor, in case of doubts, according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations available at http://www.issn.org/2-22661-LTWA-online.php.

Examples of citation for:

Articles
Charpentier J. C., McKenna T. F., 2004.Managing complex systems: some trends for the future of chemical and process engineering. Chem. Eng. Sci., 59, 1617-1640. DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2004.01.044.

Information from books (we suggest adding the page numbers where the quoted information can be found)
Bird R. B., Stewart W.E., Lightfood E.N., 2002. Transport Phenomena. 2nd edition, Wiley, New York, 415-421.

Chapters in books
Hanjalić K., Jakirlić S., 2002. Second-moment turbulence closure modelling, In: Launder B.E., Sandham N.D. (Eds.), Closure strategies for turbulent and transitional flows. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 47-101.

Conferences
ten Cate A., Bermingham S.K., Derksen J.J., Kramer H.M.J., 2000. Compartmental modeling of an 1100L DTB crystallizer based on Large Eddy flow simulation. 10th European Conference on Mixing. Delft, the Netherlands, 2-5 July 2000, 255-264.

8. Payments

Starting from 2014 a principle of publishing articles against payment is introduced, assuming non-profit making editorial office. According to the principle authors or institutions employing them, will have to cover the expenses amounting to 40 PLN (or 10 €) per printed page. The above amount will be used to supplement the limited financial means received from the Polish Academy of Sciences for the editorial and publishing; and in particular to increase the capacity of the next CPE volumes and to proofread the linguistic correctness of the articles. The method of payment will be indicated in an invoice sent to the authors or institutions after acceptance of their manuscripts to be published. In justifiable cases presented in writing, the editorial staff may decide to relieve authors from basic payment, either partially or fully. All correspondence should be sent to Editor-in-Chief, Prof. Andrzej K. Biń, email address: andrzej.bin@outlook.com.


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